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What is BIOS | Firmware | UEFI | Configuration and monitoring

In this article we are answering the basic questions like What is BIOS | Firmware | UEFI? and common configuration.

What is Firmware?

Firmware is a special software that provides a set of instructions to the hardware. Firmware is present in the computer’s motherboard. The instructions in firmware are permanently present in the read only memory (ROM) of a computer. Companies add this firmware during the manufacturing.
Not only computer, every electronic device has a firmware embedded in it. This software instructs hardware to perform various actions needed for the device. 

What is BIOS?

BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output system. BIOS is a firmware that performs various actions during the booting process. This is present in a motherboard. Before the computer boots up, it performs a test known as POST. 

What is POST?

POST stands for Power On Self Test. Before the computer loads the operating system, POST runs a diagnostic test to all the hardware present in a motherboard. When everything is working in the motherboard, it boots up the operation system.

If there is a hardware that is not working, it sends beep code and you can find an error displayed on the system.

If the system is dead, the postcard helps to test them. Postcard helps to shows a code. Each code has a different issue, vendor manual provides detail of the code.

What is UEFI?

UEFI stands for Unified Extensible Firmware Interface. It is an advanced BIOS replacing the legacy BIOS.

What is BIOS, What is UEFI, What is Firmware
Legacy BIOSUEFI
Legacy BIOS support 16-bit processor UEFI has 32 and 64-bit processor
It has slower startup compared to UEFI It has faster startup compared to legacy BIOS
MBR (Master boot record) is used to store information about hard drive dataGPT (GUID partition table) is used to store information about hard drive data
It does not supports secure boot It supports secure boot

BIOS Configuration

Each vendor has different keys to enter the BIOS setting, the common keys are F2, F10 and delete. You can search the web if these keys doesn’t work for your system.

The key should be pressed before the computer boots up.

There are three main heading in BIOS, they are:

1. Main

2. Security

3. Boot

Main option in BIOS

What is BIOS, What is FIrmware, What is UEFI

The main menu has different options for setting up the system

System time & System date:

System time shows the time of the system and system data shows the current date. This value can also be modified by navigating through the keyboard and entering the value needed.

Network Boot:

Network boot helps to start up and load the operating system without using other storage devices like USB, CD-ROM or hard drive. It boots up from the LAN (Local Area Network).

Wake on LAN:

Wake up LAN helps to remotely turn on the computer. This helps to wake up the computer and perform scheduled task on its own without the need of the technician to be physically present.

D2D & GPT partition recovery:

D2D is Disk to disk recovery, this allows computer hard disk to take a backup and restore it to another hard drive. GPT is GUID partition table to partition tables of storage device in a computer.

Security in BIOS

What is BIOS, What is UEFI, What is Firmware

Set Supervisor Password

Supervisor password is essential because it helps to restrict every user from accessing and change BIOS settings. When a user tries to enter the BIOS setting, it will ask for a password. 

TPM state

TPM stands for Trusted Platform Module helps to provide security for hardware. It provides hardware authentication for the host. It is a chip which contains RSA encryption.

Boot in BIOS

What is BIOS, What is FIrmware, What is UEFI

Boot priority order

This option is helpful to choose from which storage device the system should be booted. The priority of boot order can be changed by selecting and moving down or up arrows in the keyboard.  

After making the changes , click F10 to save changes.  

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